Chapter 9 Paper: Globalization: Cultural Hybridity

Chapter 9 Paper: Globalization: Cultural Hybridity

Part I

Some of the food substances I usually use daily include:

  • Cheeseburgers – the place of origin, USA
  • Lobster roll – originality, New England
  • Chili con Carne – the place of origin, Mexico
  • Chinese chicken salad – the place of origin, California
  • Cuban sandwich – the place of origin, Florida
  • Apple pie – the place of origin, England
  • Pizza – place origin, Italy

All the food items I consume are produced in the USA. However, some of them are not purely American. There exist some hints of cultural hybridity based on their places of origin. According to Andrews (2018), Americans have come to identify some of their favorite foods based on places of origin such as Mexican or Cuban among others. For instance, the Cuban sandwich resulted from mixed meat sandwiches that were common among Cuban workers in the 20th century. However, the current Cuban sandwich originated in Florida. Due to cultural diffusion between Americans and Cubans, the sandwich originally formulated by Americans retained the Cuban name.

Also, foods may have regionalized names but that does these regions represent the actual source. For instance, the Chinese chicken salad, which contains traditional Chinese cuisine. Despite the name of the dish, it was initially formulated in California in the 1960s (Claudia, 2021). While the food may be American, its ingredients and style of presentation demonstrate how other cultures have influenced the food industry. Global interactions and immigrants have impacted the food culture. Many of the foods loved by Americans would not exist without the country’s immigrant cultural history. Americans may consider some of the foods they consume as invented in America but in the real case, they are from different places of origin. Therefore, as a result of cultural hybridity, people have adapted foods from other cultures.

Part II

Clothes and shoes that I use daily include:

  • Denim Jeans – made in New Jersey, USA
  • Flannel Shirts – made in California, USA
  • Sweat pants – made in New York, USA
  • Sneakers – made in North Carolina, USA
  • Earth Runner Sandals – made in California, USA

All my clothes and shoes are manufactured in the USA. The USA strictly adheres to the UN human rights guidelines concerning child labor and environmental injustice. According to United Nations (2011), the primary guidelines includes states’ respecting and protecting human rights. Also, the guidelines outline that business enterprises, including manufacturing companies, need to adhere to any applicable laws and match the needs of the rights appropriately when breached (United Nations, 2011). All states of the USA and business enterprises are expected to follow and uphold these guidelines regardless of their size, structure, and location.

Additionally, the USA department of labor monitors incidences of child labor in the country and ensures states and business enterprises adhere to child labor by laws. The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) is among the regulations enacted by the federal government to prohibit the employment and abuse of underage workers (Mayer, 2013). More importantly, FLSA ensures children receive the best educational opportunities and limits their employment in jobs that may negatively impact their safety and health.

Moreover, the USA is committed to protecting the environment. Through environmental justice, the USA ensures its residents have access to a healthy and sustainable environment, as well as, protects them from environmental harm (EPA, n.d.). Due to increased human activities, environmental degradation has also increased. To ensure natural resources are protected, the USA adheres to environmental justice and ensures companies and individuals also adhere to the guidelines. To this end, it is clear that the USA upholds laws and guidelines governing human rights on children labor and environmental justice.

Part III

Due to increased globalization, world economies are increasingly becoming interconnected. Globalization in the current world has both positive and negative impacts. Some of the positive effects include increased competition, efficient markets, and the production of quality products. As a result of increased globalization, competition across global markets has significantly increased (Edwards, 2021). Increased competition on a global scale facilitates the production of high-quality products. globalization allows customers to have many products to choose from leading to an increase in global demand. As a result, companies implement strategies to match the needs of their customers.

Moreover, due to increased globalization, efficient markets have been established worldwide. In a competitive environment, businesses tend to run and manage their operations efficiently to gain or maintain a competitive advantage in the industry (Edwards, 2021). Currently, as a result of globalization, the number of transactions among corporations across the borders has significantly increased. Expansion of these transactions and efficient markets have promoted foreign trade. At the moment, an individual can order a product from any country and countries can export their products to other nations.

Despite these benefits, globalization has some limitations. In some developing countries, globalization has brought about unemployment. Even if it has created job opportunities across the global markets, issues related to unemployment can be traced back to unemployment. According to Heinze (2020), globalization has resulted in income inequalities and trades that benefit people differently. As a result, some people benefit more from globalization, while others suffer. These differences have resulted in increased unemployment levels. Also, globalization has resulted in environmental degradation. It has facilitated increased transport of goods, resulting in environmental issues such as global warming, air pollution, and greenhouse emissions.

The coronavirus epidemic has crushed the global market. Since the pandemic started, national economies and governments have struggled with various costs. For instance, in response to the removal of lockdown measures, central banks in most nations have reduced interest rates to make borrowing cheaper and to motivate people to spend to boost the economy (Pak et al., 2020). In addition, the pandemic has resulted in increased unemployment rates. During the pandemic, most individuals lost their careers while others experienced pay cuts. In the United States, about 9% of workers lost their jobs (Jones et al., 2021). Moreover, as a result of the pandemic, many industries including tourism and transportation suffered significant losses. The reason is that the pandemic limited travel, which was the main source of revenue for these industries.

The changes in the global market affected me and other people I know in several ways. First, during the pandemic, it became very difficult to access healthcare because the health sector was the most affected. Some of the people I know lost their lives as they could not receive medical care in hospitals due to overcrowding of patients and lack of enough medical staff. Moreover, the changes in the global market during the pandemic led to an increase in online shopping. It was the only way to get access to products without exposing ourselves to the virus. From the experience, I have learned that it is vital to appreciate our most essential needs such as healthcare. More importantly, I have learned it is important for people to work together when faced with challenges. It is the only way to move forward and overcome the challenges.


















Jones, L., Palumbo, D., & Brown, D. (2021). Coronavirus: How the pandemic has changed the World Economy. BBC News.

Pak, A., Adegboye, O. A., Adekunle, A. I., Rahman, K. M., McBryde, E. S., & Eisen, D. P. (2020). Economic consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak: the need for epidemic preparedness. Frontiers in public health8, 241.

Heinze, J. (2020). The impact of globalisation on poverty and inequality in the Global South. E-International Relations.

Edwards, J. (2021). Advantages and Disadvantages of Competing in International Markets. Mastering Strategic Management-1st Canadian Edition.

EPA. (n.d.). Learn About Environmental Justice. EPA.

Mayer, G. (2013). Child labor in America: History, policy, and legislative issues (pp. 7-5700). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.

United Nations. (2011). Guiding principles on business and Human Rights – OHCHR.

Claudia, A. (2021). Classic Chinese chicken salad with creamy sesame dressing. Claudia’s Table.

Andrews, C. (2018). 20 ‘foreign’ foods that are really American. USA Today. Retrieved from






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