Video Summaries

Video Summaries

The Enlightenment

This video provides an overview of the age of enlightenment and the philosophers who significantly contributed to major changes of that era. The Age of Enlightenment happened around the mid-1600s to the late 1700s.  During this time the ability to reason by humans was overvalued. The period was assumed the name enlightenment since it was an era when a set of scholars, artists, scientists, and writers vigorously used their reasoning to ensure a tremendous knowledge of science and mathematics is gained bringing new thoughts regarding democracy and human civil liberties (AHSChavez, 2011). Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes became the Enlightenment fathers. Bacon was a prolific writer and a lifelong politician, he also accomplished things in law and literature. Bacon was perhaps the most important member of a movement that promoted empirical investigation of nature and experimentation, emphasized the importance of engineering to the understanding of the world, and advocated free sharing of knowledge between natural philosophers. He also became the first person to give a systematic (but unfinished) treatment of the logic of inductive investigation.

Descartes was an original thinker active in many aspects of philosophy. He is most famous for the “cogito”, an attempt to reduce skepticism to a root beyond skepticism, and then trying to build a philosophy up from that ground base. He was also a “dualist”, who thought that mind and matter were fundamentally different things. His ideas were very fruitful in the history of philosophy (AHSChavez, 2011). In the mid-1900s Carl Linnaeus simplified the process of nomenclature. He is known for suggesting that species and genus can be taken as first and second parts of scientific names. This would be written instead including all the taxa. Linnaeus method was widely accepted by all scientists and biologists for taxonomy and nomenclature. This system of naming a species is called binomial nomenclature and because of this contribution, he was given the name father of nomenclature.

Another major contributor to the age of enlightenment is John Locke. Locke had a belief in the legitimacy of the government whose authority was contested by the people it ruled. Nonetheless, he believed that citizen’s natural rights should be protected by the government and every person should be equal under the law (AHSChavez, 2011). Locke was the main advocate of the Scientific Revolution’s empirical approaches. Most enlightenment philosophers advocated for the strict separation of the State and the Church since mixing government and religion would always lead to disaster. The ideas of enlightenment philosophers were admired by leaders of both the French and American Revolutions one of them being Thomas Jefferson.


AHSChavez. (2011, July 6). All About the Enlightenment The Age of Reason. YouTube.

The American Revolution

After the French War, in 1763, the policy of salutary neglect by the British government ended leaving colonies to conduct their businesses. To pay off debts Parliament enacts several new Acts that tried to raise revenue in the colonies through taxes, decrease smuggling, and closer trade that benefited Britain (Gettysburg48846, 2013). The colonist did not like these new laws feeling that they had no representation in Parliament yet had to follow their rules. In 1773, the Tea Act was passed which allowing the East Indian Company to directly sell to the colonies. This helped in lowering the tea prices to avoid bankruptcy. In protest, colonists raided three ships and dumped tea into Boston Harbor. The Intolerable Acts placed heavy punishments on Massachusetts, including dissolving their colonial assembly in 1774. In reaction, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress was formed and began rebellion activities. With the increased military presence of the British in the colonies, they began to arm and raised militias (Gettysburg48846, 2013). On the 19th of April in 1775 was fired the shot heard around the world. It was not a revolution to gain rights, but a revolution to retain the rights the Americans had long held. The Declaration of Independence became inevitable, and finally the British would hear “The World Turned Upside Down.”


Gettysburg48846. (2013, October 9). The American Revolution From Colonies to Constitution The Road to Revolution. YouTube.

The French Revolution

The French revolution is a long series of events occurring in the late 18th century (starting from 1789). It started because when arriving on the throne, young Louis XVI had no political or military experience and was facing famine in the country (Weird History, 2020). Besides that, the bourgeoisie and the proletariat were jealous of the advantages the nobles had and decided to overthrow the king and set up a republic to give rights to everyone. So, they spread liberal ideas throughout the country and eventually created a mass uprising in almost all of the major cities of France. They created the bill of human rights and the constitution and voted that the king should be beheaded, at the same time creating the first French republic. But what happened next is that this fresh new government could not keep up and was overthrown pretty quickly by Robespierre, a madman who killed thousands of people with a French handmade quality tool- “La Guillotine”. Ironically, he was guillotined shortly after (Weird History, 2020). Then came Napoleon Bonaparte who resettled an autocratic system around laws called the “code civil” leading to the end of the revolution.


Weird History. (2020, July 22). 11 Ways Corruption Led to the French Revolution. YouTube.

Industrial Revolution

The industrial revolution led to the transformation of economies that were grounded in handicrafts and agriculture into economies that employ mechanized production, extensive industries, and factory systems. New sources of power, new machines, and new organization of labor made work in all types of industries more effectual and productive. The Industrial Revolution which started in the 15th and continued into the 18th century allowed a higher population from the same amount of cultivated land (SlimaksClass, 2011). In the same period, science expanded away from the control of the church and improved shipping allowed the oceans to be crossed. Now a feature of science is that successful practical inventions save labor which allows more resources to be devoted to science. Over decades the results are logarithmic rather than arithmetic. The start of the Industrial Revolution was the harnessing of mechanical power on a large scale. Firstly, water then steams power.


SlimaksClass. (2011, November 18). Industrial Revolution Overview. YouTube.



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