Protecting Human Research Participants’ Reflection

Some critical circumstances significantly influenced the need for an effective policy that would help in protecting human subjects during research. First, this need arose as a result of different ethical concerns and historical events that surrounded the treatment of people who were participating in research studies. The circumstances were marked by the exploitation of subjects and the potential for harm during research. This led to the creation of regulations and guidelines that would help in ensuring the well-being and safety of participants. Another circumstance that forced the creation of the Nuremberg Code and other critical policies was the mass-scale atrocities committed toward the Jews and other prisoners during the Holocaust and the Second World War (Anabo et al., 2019). During these events, the Nazi doctors were engaged in trials that exposed individuals to deliberate mutilation, torture, murder, and mutilation.

There are specific ways in which human research subjects are likely to be exposed to harm during research studies. For example, there was a case whereby oxygen experiments were done on premature babies without consent from their mothers. Some studies have also been conducted have been conducted to find out if kidneys were cooled before transplants, they would generate fewer complications (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2013). These studies were conducted with a lack of sufficient risk assessments for the recipients. Another example is the use of new gene editing technologies like CRISPR-Cas9. These technologies significantly pose serious challenges and risks to the protection of participants’ rights. Other examples are the Nazi medical experimentation and the Tuskegee Syphilis investigation. The need for laws and safeguards to guarantee that people who take part in investigation studies receive treatment ethically and that their liberties are safeguarded was made clear by these cases. Subjects involving humans have treated ethically today thanks to regulations like the Common Rule and the Belmont Report. Participants may suffer physical or psychological injury as a result of research practices or privacy violations.

Children, expectant mothers, and prisoners are three groups that need extra protection. Children lack the capacity for informed consent and may not completely grasp the hazards involved; fetuses are sometimes put at risk by experimental operations or treatments; inmates may feel pressured to participate because of their jail status (National Achieves, 2017). Aside from gaining informed consent, making sure subjects and their legal representatives are fully aware of the risks and advantages, and putting extra measures in place to protect participants’ welfare and rights, conducting experiments amongst these at-risk groups is subject to standards and limits. These conditions/restrictions are typically adequate, but there is ongoing discussion over the particular safeguards needed for these groups; ongoing assessment and improvement are required for the successful safeguarding of the rights and well-being of individuals participating in research.

I think beneficence is the most critical ethical principle followed by respect for participants and finally justice in the Belmont Report. Having the best interests of those participating in the study in mind might be interpreted broadly as beneficence. Researchers work to reduce risks to participants while maximizing advantages to individuals as well as society per the idea of beneficence (Anabo et al., 2019). The principle of beneficence, for instance, should prompt us to investigate other options for obtaining the same knowledge that poses fewer risks for subjects when deciding on a research design. However, being beneficent requires healthcare professionals to take into consideration specific circumstances and remember that what is advantageous for a particular individual probably isn’t advantageous for all patients. Respect for participants is also critical. It entails that everyone involved should be understandably given pertinent information before willingly agreeing to engage. The last one is justice. The division of the study’s costs and rewards is addressed by the justice principle. Putting it a different way, it ought not to be the case that one segment of society pays for study while another group benefits from it. When it comes to subject selection, justice-related considerations are more important.




















National Achieves. (2017). Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects. Federal Register.

Anabo, I. F., Elexpuru-Albizuri, I., & Villardón-Gallego, L. (2019). Revisiting the Belmont Report’s ethical principles in internet-mediated research: Perspectives from disciplinary associations in the social sciences. Ethics and Information Technology21(2), 137-149.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2013, December 4). Biobanking: When Issues with Tissues Come a Knockin’ [Video]. YouTube.






Homework Essay Paper Writers
Calculate your order
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Choose Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always confirm that writers follow all of your instructions precisely. you'll choose your academic level: highschool, college/university or professional, Your order will be assigned to a writer who possesses a respective degree.

Highly Experienced Paper Writers

Highly Experienced Paper Writers

Our team of professional academic writers has years of vast experience in academic writing, research, and formatting. So you can always be sure that your project is in safe hands.

Free Revisions Essay Writing

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you believe we missed something, feel free to send your order for a free revision. After receipt of the final document, You have 10 days to submit the order for review. A revision can be submitted by logging into your personal account or by contacting our support team.

Timely Assignment Delivery

Timely Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

We ensure that all papers are always delivered on the expected time. In any case, if we require more time to polish your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you are not in a position to allocate additional time, a 100% order refund is guaranteed.

Plagiarism free custom writing

Plagiarism free & Confidential

As part of our quality assurance process, we use several writing tools and checks to ensure that all documents you receive are 100% unique and original.Each paper undergoes careful review by our editors to deliver plagiarism free essays. We also guarantee maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

Real time chat essay writer

Real time online chat with your writer

Our writers and support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week to assist you. We are committed to providing you with top-notch customer experience. Chat with us anytime.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Get your paper done in these simple steps

give essay topic

Give your requirements

Fill in the order form and tell us about your assignment, instructions and deadline

pay for essay

Proceed with the payment

Choose your preferred payment method and the writer will start writing your custom paper.

download custom essay

Download the final file

Once your high quality custom paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Paper Writing Services

We are here to ensure you dont get stuck with your coursework and assignments. Focus on your hobbies and enjoy some quality leisure time as we write your paper. You can trust our kinds of writing services.

essay writing service essay helper


Essay Writing Service

Stuck with an essay assignment? Making an admission application? We specialize in writing high quality and engaging personal statements as well as application essays. Our professional academic essay writers are experts in writing 100% original essays according to order specifications. From compositions, creative writing to literary analysis we've got you covered.

professional assignment Help assignment writer


Professional assignment Help

Your routine homework and academic assignments are completed on time and at affordable prices. Submit your assignments and the respective subject matter expert will get it done within no time and painlessly. Better grades will be yours without any stress at all!

research paper writing service english essay writer


Research and Term Papers

Every member of our dynamic essay writing team is an expert in academic research. They are all well versed with APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard citation formats. Your research paper gets to you fully formatted and ready to be submitted. The research involved in writing your paper is always 100% original. This is part of our commitment to provide you with papers free of plagiarism.

custom writing academic writer

Custom Writing

Custom Writing Services

Our highly experienced business, nursing, and psychology writers are true professionals with vast prowess at delivering outstanding work in a wide range of fields. You dont have to worry about Short deadlines anymore. Just give us the instructions and you'll receive your custom paper ASAP! We have fully qualified, full-pro writers on stand by to assist you.