People vs Hall – Immigrants In The United States Of America

America has had a history of being perpetually hostile towards immigrants or people who are not constricted to the Caucasian race that is viewed as a more superior race. This reeds from the systematic racism that was established during the declaration of Independence in 1776, and albeit efforts have been made to hack down repugnant laws and systems, the hostility still remains.

Irrespective of the actions immigrants have put in to build America, racism still survives. Ironically, as a country initially made up of immigrants, and as a people that claim to occupy a land of opportunities, immigrants are not seen with very much illumination these days.

An instance of the hate that immigrants went through trails back to an infamous case the People vs. George Hall case. The case not only uncovered the inadequacies of an American Republican government as “progressive”, but it also added the Chinese people to the group of immigrants as non-Caucasoid fellows that could not testify in the court against their white American counterparts.


What started out as a means of entertaining cheap labour from China, turned out to be a racial system fueled by Chinese exclusion. In the 1840s, Chinese people began to migrate from China to America, in search of greener pastures and realistic opportunities. As numerous Chinese men trooped onto American soil, toiling day and night with backbreaking jobs, more Americans felt threatened at the reality of a different set of people; with a distinct culture, language, race, and religion.

However, the ostracism of Chinese folks did not begin until 1954, after the people vs Hall case was dismissed, on the basis of Chinese people being an inferior race with a mild degree of intellect. From there, Chinese men had exclusive rights under the Chinese Exclusion act; a series of laws that limited Chinese humanity, including not being able to testify in court.

This bone of contention, as mentioned earlier, began with the murder of Ling Sing in 1953, by George Hall. But, there are many questions that attempt to peruse the reason for his murder and the reason for racial discrimination against Chinese folks.


We cannot begin this without dire consideration of its root. After the Mexican-American war, California was handed over to America as a condition enshrined in the treaty of Guadalupe. When gold was discovered in the state, an influx of Chinese immigrants occurred, mostly as miners came to dig out gold and make a substantial living. This, in turn, heightened the competition against American white miners.

At this point, the Chinese immigrants had already made use of the Californian courts with degrees of success. Initially, section 14 of the Crime Act stated that no black, Indian, or mullato person will be allowed to give evidence in favour of, or against a white man, even though he is culpable of any offence. Akin to this was section 394 of the Civil cases Act. It was not startling that the Chinese made use of the court systems at this time since they were not affected by both acts.

However, things diverted when, in 1853, the Californian court convicted an American White man, George Hall, of the murder of Ling Sing, on the confirmations of three Chinese witnesses. In 1854, Hall had his conviction reversed when he appealed against the inclusion of Chinese testifiers in court. The crux of his argument was based on section 14 law that prevented blacks, Indians, and mullatos from testifying against White folks.

To have this reversed, his appeal was seen as progressive in the Republican government that accepted racial bias as civilized. Notwithstanding, the Californian Supreme court (led by Hugh Murray and with the support of Heydenfeldt), in agreement with Hall, granted him freedom from all charges and painstakingly extended the ban of section 14 to Chinese people.


Although the aftermath of the cases did not prevent white men from being convicted of murdering Chinese people, it sidelined Chinese folks from giving testimonies in court. Underlying this, the developments increased violence against Chinese folks. Just like other non-white races, they were rough handled through the paths of racial discrimination and abuse. Chinese folks faced human rights violations and were even banned from immigrating into America in 1882.

The case of Hall received backlash from various Chinese folks, leading to the unavoidable reverse of all testimony laws in 1873. However, the damage of an American perspective of the Chinese had already trickled down and intertwined with the American mentality of acquiring the role of superior race through nature —a grave misconception they danced to.

The people vs. Hall is only a glimpse of what immigrants have been through. Albeit, over the years, immigrants’ rights have been recognized by intergovernmental organizations and NGOs spurring world governments to do likewise —America inclusive, we cannot overshadow how discrimination sets in casually at the consideration of migrants.

Homework Essay Paper Writers
Calculate your order
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Choose Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always confirm that writers follow all of your instructions precisely. you'll choose your academic level: highschool, college/university or professional, Your order will be assigned to a writer who possesses a respective degree.

Highly Experienced Paper Writers

Highly Experienced Paper Writers

Our team of professional academic writers has years of vast experience in academic writing, research, and formatting. So you can always be sure that your project is in safe hands.

Free Revisions Essay Writing

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you believe we missed something, feel free to send your order for a free revision. After receipt of the final document, You have 10 days to submit the order for review. A revision can be submitted by logging into your personal account or by contacting our support team.

Timely Assignment Delivery

Timely Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

We ensure that all papers are always delivered on the expected time. In any case, if we require more time to polish your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you are not in a position to allocate additional time, a 100% order refund is guaranteed.

Plagiarism free custom writing

Plagiarism free & Confidential

As part of our quality assurance process, we use several writing tools and checks to ensure that all documents you receive are 100% unique and original.Each paper undergoes careful review by our editors to deliver plagiarism free essays. We also guarantee maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

Real time chat essay writer

Real time online chat with your writer

Our writers and support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week to assist you. We are committed to providing you with top-notch customer experience. Chat with us anytime.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Get your paper done in these simple steps

give essay topic

Give your requirements

Fill in the order form and tell us about your assignment, instructions and deadline

pay for essay

Proceed with the payment

Choose your preferred payment method and the writer will start writing your custom paper.

download custom essay

Download the final file

Once your high quality custom paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Paper Writing Services

We are here to ensure you dont get stuck with your coursework and assignments. Focus on your hobbies and enjoy some quality leisure time as we write your paper. You can trust our kinds of writing services.

essay writing service essay helper


Essay Writing Service

Stuck with an essay assignment? Making an admission application? We specialize in writing high quality and engaging personal statements as well as application essays. Our professional academic essay writers are experts in writing 100% original essays according to order specifications. From compositions, creative writing to literary analysis we've got you covered.

professional assignment Help assignment writer


Professional assignment Help

Your routine homework and academic assignments are completed on time and at affordable prices. Submit your assignments and the respective subject matter expert will get it done within no time and painlessly. Better grades will be yours without any stress at all!

research paper writing service english essay writer


Research and Term Papers

Every member of our dynamic essay writing team is an expert in academic research. They are all well versed with APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard citation formats. Your research paper gets to you fully formatted and ready to be submitted. The research involved in writing your paper is always 100% original. This is part of our commitment to provide you with papers free of plagiarism.

custom writing academic writer

Custom Writing

Custom Writing Services

Our highly experienced business, nursing, and psychology writers are true professionals with vast prowess at delivering outstanding work in a wide range of fields. You dont have to worry about Short deadlines anymore. Just give us the instructions and you'll receive your custom paper ASAP! We have fully qualified, full-pro writers on stand by to assist you.