Essay Questions

  1. The word persuasion turns some people off. What negative connotations can it have? (Obj. 1)

Most individuals engage in persuasion to influence the beliefs, values and behavior of other people. The act of persuasion makes other people feel that they are led by others or at a lower status. This is because they are made to accept other people’s ideas and are not given a chance to make a choice. Nonetheless, persuasion is linked to lies and exaggerated words as a way of luring people to accept something. It is associated with manipulation and tricks by playing around with other individuals emotions without paying attention to their integrity, desires and personal values making the persuaders look selfish (Shimp & Andrews, 2013). In marketing customers connect persuasion with hiding the bad qualities of a product. Marketers may use all strategies to attract customers to buy a specific product that has a lower market value. Thus, may be achieved through overexaggerating of good qualities, likability appeals, empathy and nonverbal cues. This can significantly affect customers perception towards persuasion.

  1. What are some of the underlying motivations that prompt individuals to agree to requests that do not directly benefit themselves or their organizations? (Obj. 2)

Most individuals accept requests that do not benefit to them or their companies since these requests may be of mutual benefit to them. An individual may inherently feel that he or she will have a mutual benefit to individuals making the requests. For instance, a service offered for free may induce a feeling of the need to appreciate. As a result, the individual will be motivated to agree to something he or she will not benefit from (Shimp & Andrews, 2013). Also, a strong bond or connection towards individuals offering the requests can be a motivation. If an individual feels connected and close to the requester, the individual will most likely accept the request. For instance, there is a high chance of individuals accepting requests from their family members or friends. People will also agree to requests when they have made mistakes in which they should be accountable for. For instance, they will accept requests for changes in their behaviors when they have made specific mistakes that may have impacted many people.

  1. Why is it important to know your needs and have documentation when you make requests of superiors?  (Obj. 4)

Superiors in organizations have the role allocating resources to employees who need them. However, for individuals to get these resources from their superiors, they have to persuade them. This can be achieved through documentation and highlighting the needs. Individuals nee to understand their needs to enable them to find the most effective way to reach out to their superiors and address them (Shimp & Andrews, 2013). An individual’s understanding of targets and goals as well as own empathy with their superior’s challenges, is critical for success in getting approval for requests. It is also important for individuals to document all their ideas and proposals in a formal manner to win approval from a superior. This can be achieved through formal letters, professional emails or request memos. Documentation helps the superior to evaluate a person’s needs. It also justifies an individual’s actions and it shows their ability to converse in a professional manner. It makes it easier for a superior to clearly understand a person’s perspective towards something and their reasoning.

  1. How are direct-mail sales messages and e-mail sales messages similar, and how are they different? (Obj. 5)

There are several differences and similarities between direct-mail and e-mail sales. First, both employ messaging to make sells of services and products. If unsolicited both are often viewed as junk spam or mail and the changes of mails being read are minimal. However, email sales are often made electronically through computers or phones while direct mail sales are directly delivered to individuals or sent through postal services (Shimp & Andrews, 2013). While using emails to make sales limits marketing creativity, using direct mail sales allows creativity since it is an ad print. The target market for direct mail sales is within a specific geographical area and marketers can target their messages to specific audience. On the other hand, the target audience for email sales can be from different places and it may be challenging for marketers to target their audience easily. Emails sales are cheaper, more interactive and quicker compared to direct mail sales. Both sales are effective in different ways.

  1. Ethical Issue: What is puffery, and how can it be justified in marketing messages? Consider the following: Dr. Phil calls himself “America’s most trusted relationship counselor.” Rush Limbaugh claims to be “America’s anchorman.” Sony’s Cyber-Shot camera advertisement says “Make time stand still.”

A puffery is a widely used advertising technique that employs nonobjective and exaggerated claims about a service or product. Puffery is used in advertising because it is not considered illegal as no one can disprove the claims which advertisers make. When individuals use puffery in adverts, they make bold and exaggerated claims about their products or services (Shimp & Andrews, 2013). These claims are usually their opinions and not based on facts or any measurable quantity. For instance, when Dr. Phill considers himself “America’s most trusted relationship counsellor” he is puffering. There is no measurable factor to prove or otherwise negate this “fact”. A company can also publish an entertaining and captivating message about its product, make vague claims about their products or compare their products with similar items. For instance, the camera advert for Cyber-Shot of Sony states “Make time stand still.” This is an exaggerated statement about their camara. It cannot be disapproved or proved.




















Shimp, T. & Andrews, J. (2013). Advertising Promotion And Other Aspects Of Integrated Marketing Communications. Mason Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning.


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