Compare & Contrast Piaget And Vygotsky Theory


Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky contributed reasonably to the field of education through their logic of children’s cognitive abilities and styles. This essay considers the similarities and differences between Piaget and Vygotsky’s works, a necessity that contributes to learning and understanding of children’s cognitive abilities and stages.

Although they hold different perspectives on children’s cognitive development, their contributions assist educators in teaching and understanding children. While considering their theories, this essay will unveil the similarities and differences between Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s works.

Piaget provides 4 stages of cognitive development from infancy to adulthood: they are sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations. Age zero to two years is the first stage, where a child conceived the world through his/her senses and movement. By the latter part of the sensorimotor stage, a child develops object permanence. A child also develops the law of causation and effect: he recognizes that his action reacts to an object. At this stage, a child can reverse actions but s/he cannot reverse thinking.

Between ages two to seven, the preoperational stage kicks in. A child cannot think through his actions and s/he is egocentric. By this, they hold that others acknowledge and hold similar beliefs to them. At this, they engage in collective monologues which are void of interaction with other children. Also, a child acquires the skill of conservancy. S/he holds that the quantity of something remains equivalent even if its formation changes. This is because s/he hasn’t developed the ability to reverse thinking. That is, thinking things all over.

Concrete operations manifest between ages seven to eleven. According to Piaget, students in elementary years learn best through the use of visual and tangible objects. Students begin to reason through 3 basic skills identity, compensation, and seriation. This stage is characterized by identifying persons or things by their names; knowing that one action causes another (compensation); lastly, a child learns to arrange objects by certain physical patterns chronologically.

In the fourth stage, formal operations are set in between eleven to adulthood. At this stage, children have both inductive and deductive reasoning capacities. They utilize techniques to solve problems while maintaining their theoretical and complex thinking skills. While they do these, they possess the meta-cognitive ability too, an ability to think about thinking.

Through Piaget’s recommendations, teaching strategies developed include actions and verbal instructions in the preoperational stage. This is because a child hasn’t developed mental understanding, a teacher needs to demonstrate his/her instructions. The concrete stage teachings involve using hand-on learning which commenced in the first stage. With this, students are encouraged to conduct experiments and solve and decipher problems through their logical and analytical thinking skills.

Teachers deliver short instructions and concrete examples with more periods of practical rehearsals and learning. This improves the skills of identity, compensation, and seriation in concrete operational learning.

The formal operational stage of teaching involves the approval of opportunities for students’ scientific and problem-solving skills. Students should be given problems and explore solutions through hypothetical possibilities. Teachers can teach a broad context while relating it to their lives. This use of idealism is developed in the formal operational stage because the application of broad assumptions to their lives defends the realization of the latter ideal concepts.

Piaget suggests that a child’s environment influences his learning. Hence, social interaction aids to transcend egocentrism. Further, although children develop techniques that mentally people and things, these techniques can be altered through the process of assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation involves what is already known while accommodation involves adding to what is already perceived.

However, Lev Vygotsky, another psychologist, offered an alternative to Piaget’s stages of cognitive development. His Sociocultural Theory of Development proposes that children act on their environment to learn. Through dialogues, social interaction to comprehend cultural virtues takes place. Vygotsky believes that human culture constructs cognition, a feature that is in every culture.

Although social communication tilts towards sentimental thinking, it involves the relations of persons by sharing day-to-day activities to solve problems. When a child receives help through social interaction, he employs better techniques to solve related problems in the future.

Vygotsky also inaugurated scaffolding as a sociocultural perspective to propel children to solve problems. Through scaffolding, students are provided with clues as a means to help them devise strategies to solve problems. While Piaget holds that students don’t have mental proficiency to solve problems, Vygotsky holds that encouragement and giving hints would assist them to solve a problem.

Language is also an important feature of his sociocultural theory. Of course, the language indicates the culture of a particular set of people. Language acquaints the child with his cognitive skill due to the inbuilt biases, rules, and restrictions embedded in a language.

Private speech is also associated with language development. This is a medium through which children use (Piaget’s acclaimed egocentric) self-talk which adults may use to guide their actions and aid their reasoning. A medium that Piaget expresses as immature. Vygotsky holds that self-directed speech becomes a regulator through communication with the self which is internalized after about nine years.

Vygotsky also emphasized the significance of cultural mechanisms such as language, the media, and books as important to learning and problem-solving. This level transcends to the higher level which embodies learning through psychological tools of language, symbols, and signs. After obtaining assistance through this stage, children incorporate the use of the cultural mechanisms into their lives; activities that aid problem-solving qualities in the future.

While Piaget endorsed discovery learning with minimal teacher intervention and more periods of practical rehearsals and learning, Vygotsky holds the guided discovery in the classroom. This involves asking students intriguing questions that could assist them to unearth opinions through testing hypotheses.

Further, they have similar theories on the matter of children’s ability to learn complex skills as they grow. They recognize the role of heredity and maturation of the brain and nature through which children meet the demand of their environment. Bith Piaget and Vygotsky agreed that children’s cognition is developed in sequence and some precise abilities emerge at certain stages.

However, while Piaget holds that children learn through self-discovery in practical sessions, Vygotsky holds that children learn through guidance and instructional discovery. Piaget holds that the advancement of cognition is universally the same while Vygotsky holds that it varies depending on cultures. While Piaget suggests that children learn when they are ready, Vygotsky states that learning can be accelerated through the use of the scaffolding method.

In addition to the above, Piaget believes that language is an outcome of developed cognition while Vygotsky believes that the key to cognition is language.

While they hold conflicting views, they have similar opinions which have proved useful in the teaching profession.


Comparing Piaget and Vygotsky from

Woolfolk, Anita. (2004). Educational Psychology. (9th ed). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

On the Definition of Learning edited by Ane Qvortrup, Merete Wiberg, Gerd Christensen & Mikala Hansbøl

Comparison between Piaget & Vygotsky from

Homework Essay Paper Writers
Calculate your order
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Choose Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always confirm that writers follow all of your instructions precisely. you'll choose your academic level: highschool, college/university or professional, Your order will be assigned to a writer who possesses a respective degree.

Highly Experienced Paper Writers

Highly Experienced Paper Writers

Our team of professional academic writers has years of vast experience in academic writing, research, and formatting. So you can always be sure that your project is in safe hands.

Free Revisions Essay Writing

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you believe we missed something, feel free to send your order for a free revision. After receipt of the final document, You have 10 days to submit the order for review. A revision can be submitted by logging into your personal account or by contacting our support team.

Timely Assignment Delivery

Timely Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

We ensure that all papers are always delivered on the expected time. In any case, if we require more time to polish your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you are not in a position to allocate additional time, a 100% order refund is guaranteed.

Plagiarism free custom writing

Plagiarism free & Confidential

As part of our quality assurance process, we use several writing tools and checks to ensure that all documents you receive are 100% unique and original.Each paper undergoes careful review by our editors to deliver plagiarism free essays. We also guarantee maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

Real time chat essay writer

Real time online chat with your writer

Our writers and support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week to assist you. We are committed to providing you with top-notch customer experience. Chat with us anytime.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Get your paper done in these simple steps

give essay topic

Give your requirements

Fill in the order form and tell us about your assignment, instructions and deadline

pay for essay

Proceed with the payment

Choose your preferred payment method and the writer will start writing your custom paper.

download custom essay

Download the final file

Once your high quality custom paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Paper Writing Services

We are here to ensure you dont get stuck with your coursework and assignments. Focus on your hobbies and enjoy some quality leisure time as we write your paper. You can trust our kinds of writing services.

essay writing service essay helper


Essay Writing Service

Stuck with an essay assignment? Making an admission application? We specialize in writing high quality and engaging personal statements as well as application essays. Our professional academic essay writers are experts in writing 100% original essays according to order specifications. From compositions, creative writing to literary analysis we've got you covered.

professional assignment Help assignment writer


Professional assignment Help

Your routine homework and academic assignments are completed on time and at affordable prices. Submit your assignments and the respective subject matter expert will get it done within no time and painlessly. Better grades will be yours without any stress at all!

research paper writing service english essay writer


Research and Term Papers

Every member of our dynamic essay writing team is an expert in academic research. They are all well versed with APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard citation formats. Your research paper gets to you fully formatted and ready to be submitted. The research involved in writing your paper is always 100% original. This is part of our commitment to provide you with papers free of plagiarism.

custom writing academic writer

Custom Writing

Custom Writing Services

Our highly experienced business, nursing, and psychology writers are true professionals with vast prowess at delivering outstanding work in a wide range of fields. You dont have to worry about Short deadlines anymore. Just give us the instructions and you'll receive your custom paper ASAP! We have fully qualified, full-pro writers on stand by to assist you.