Business Research: Independent and Dependent Variables’ Relations Coursework


In the course of conducting research, several factors have to be put into consideration to ensure that the study attains a desired outcome. These factors include the research questions, sample groups, and sample sizes, methods, procedures, data analysis and most importantly are the research variables (Cresswell, 1998). Research variables are important quantities in the course of a research study. Through their manipulation, a researcher can study and observe changes that will assist him in drawing up the conclusions about the phenomenon that was under investigation.In practice, there are two types of research variables; dependent variables and independent variables. Independent variables are those quantities that are present at the beginning of the study while dependent variables are those quantities that are created through the manipulation of independent variables in the course of the study (Cresswell, 1998). An independent variable is therefore hypothesized by the researcher and as a result, it influences the dependent variable. The changes that occur in the dependent variables, as a result of the manipulation of independent variables are measured by the researcher and are used to determine the outcome of the study.The main aim of this report, therefore, is to critically analyze the relationship between independent and dependant variables and the effects they have in the manipulation of research questions, hypothesis, and theory. To achieve this goal, two different constructs will be used; each as an independent variable in one study and a dependent variable in the other. The outcome that will be obtained will be used as evidence to show the relationship between these two variables and their impacts on research. For this particular paper, the following constructs will be used:

Job satisfaction

Brand name

Job Satisfaction as an Independent Variable

Job satisfaction is a term that is used to describe the content in which an individual is with his/her work (Feinstein, 2008). From the studies that have been conducted, it has been identified that the happier an individual is with his/her work, the more satisfied he/she is with his/her job. About this fact, several factors may affect the level of job satisfaction in an individual. On the other hand, job satisfaction can also affect several other variables within the working environment. As a result, job satisfaction can be either an independent variable in a research study or a dependent variable.A study conducted by Andrew Feinstein in the year 2008 will be used to investigate the effects of job satisfaction as an independent variable. The study aimed at investigating the relationship between job satisfaction and the level of organizational commitment among the employees of two famous national chain restaurants in South Nevada, USA (Feinstein, 2008).). To gather relevant information for the study, questionnaires and surveys were conducted. ANOVA test was used to find the relationship between the two variables; job satisfaction and organization commitment. According to Feinstein (2008), the main research question for the study was:

Do restaurant employees’ levels of job satisfaction significantly affect their organizational commitment (p. 6)?

From the above question, it will be true to say that job satisfaction is the independent variable while the employees organizational commitment is the dependant variable. The survey and MSQ forms were designed to determine the intrinsic, extrinsic and general satisfaction of employees and the effects they had on the attitudes of employees. There were five different responses to the questions that ranged on the Likert scale from very dissatisfied (weight 1) to satisfied (weight 5) (Feinstein, 2008).From the results of the study, it was evident that the demographic characteristics of an employee played a critical role in the determination of his/her commitment to a given organization. It was also evident that there are particular demographic dimensions of job satisfaction that increase the levels of employee commitment. Due to this fact, employers should have a workforce of employees with similar dimensions of job satisfaction as this will increase the level of employee commitment in the organization. Due to this fact, therefore, the level of production, effectiveness, and efficiency will increase and this will ensure the sustainability of an organization in the short run and the long run (Feinstein, 2008).

Job Satisfaction as Dependent Variable

The construct of job satisfaction can also be a dependent variable. The study that was conducted by Gürbüz Ahmet in 2007 aimed at identifying the relationship between the level of education of an individual and his/her level of satisfaction. The null hypothesis if the study stated that there is a relationship between the level of education and the level of job satisfaction (Ahmet, 2007). From the hypothesis of Ahmet (2007) study, the following research question was developed:Is there a relationship between the education and the level of job satisfaction in employees working in the hotel and tourism industry (p. 4)?To measure the level of job satisfaction among employees, questionnaires were administered to 600 respondents who worked in 4 and 5-star hotels. These respondents comprised of two different groups. The first group comprised of individuals whose maximum level of education was of either primary or secondary school. The second group of the respondents comprised of individuals who were holders of a university degree or college diploma. This division was essential since it ensures that the views and perception of job satisfaction among individuals of different levels of education will be obtained (Ahmet, 2007).This study was conducted due to the prevalence of employee problems. It has been identified that the employees who are not happy with their work lack the morale and motivation to perform work as per the expected standards and requirements of the organization. On the other hand, it has been identified that those employees who are happy with their work have a positive attitude towards their jobs. As a result, they are highly motivated and perform their duties with a high degree of precision, effectiveness, and efficiency.From the study that was conducted, a positive relationship between education and job satisfaction was identified. From the results, it was evident that the employees who had higher levels of training were more satisfied with their jobs as compared to those who had lower levels of training. This might be as a result of increased professionalism, exploration, direction, passion and skills that accrue in an individual in the course of learning and training (Ahmet, 2007). As a result, these individuals develop passion and responsibility for their careers hence they are motivated to work even harder to achieve their personal goals and objectives as well as the goals and objectives of the organization that they are working with. Due to this fact, therefore, managers need to come up with means of improving the level of education of their employees and at the same time link the context of their duties and operations to be in line with their academic qualifications. This will improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization.

Brand Name as an Independent Variable

Consumer behavior and psychology, brand loyalty and brand name add to the value of a business making it to be successful in the long run. This is because the businesses tend to retain their old customers and manage to earn new customers through the high-quality services they provide (Laforet, 2011). A lot of studies have been conducted to determine the effect of these factors on the brand name success of five-star hotels. According to Paul and Milewicz (1997) for a consumer to become loyal to a certain brand, the brand/product has to have a good reputation and credibility (p. 25). For a brand to have a good reputation, it has to be consistent in its quality and maintain high standards over the years. This can only be achieved by the service/product being offered in the same manner by the entity (Laforet, 2011).A study conducted by Sylvie Laforet aimed at identifying the impacts of brand name and packaging on purchase preference (Laforet, 2011). To investigate the relationship, customers were to rate 16 different brands on a 7-point scale on a random survey that was conducted. These products were of two categories; cereals and chocolate. Also, they had either a corporate brand name or a dual-brand name. The results of the study were obtained after a regression analysis was conducted. It was found that corporate brands and dual brand names did not play a critical role in the determination of purchase preference. However, the category in which a product belonged to had a lot of influence on purchase preference. This was because the products that were arranged in different categories got high ratings as compared to those that had corporate or dual brand names.

Brand Name as a Dependent Variable

A study conducted by Inès Ayadi in 2009 used the brand name as a dependent variable. The main aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of reference pricing on brand name prices (Ayadi, 2009). This study was conducted in Tunisia as a result of an increase in the cost of medical care. This came about due to the increase in the cost of pharmaceutical products. Drugs that were accepted by the pharmaceutical organization of Tunisia were sold at high process. However, once the copyright agreement for selling these drugs expired, drugs that had a similar chemical composition and name found their way into the market. These were known as generic drugs. Due to their similarity in name and composition, generic drugs increased the market competition, affecting the pricing mechanism. To ease the competition and stabilize the selling price, a reference pricing system was established. As a result of this, the main research question for the study conducted by Ayadi (2009) was:

Does the reference pricing system have an impact on the brand name prices (p. 4)?

The sales data for pharmaceutical products from 2002 to 2008 were used in the study. Also, a reference pricing system was established. It was identified that reference pricing played an important role in the determination of brand prices by reducing it. However, the prices of generic products were not affected. This, therefore, ensured that the prices of pharmaceutical products will remain to be affordable to the majority of the population.


From the four articles that have been discussed in this report, it is evident that the influence of a construct as a dependent variable is different as compared to when the same construct is an independent variable. Also, a relationship always exists between an independent variable of a study and a dependent variable. It is therefore through this manipulation that these variables affect the research hypothesis, research questions, the research theory and finally the overall outcome of the study.


Ahmet, G. (2007). An assesment on the effect of education level on the job satisfaction from the tourism Sector point of view. Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi, 8 (1) 2007, 36-46.

Ayadi, I. (2009). The impact of reference pricing system on brand name’s prices: the case of Tunisia. Journal of Economics& Management strategy, 1 (8), 40-49.

Cresswell, J. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Homework Essay Paper Writers
Calculate your order
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Choose Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always confirm that writers follow all of your instructions precisely. you'll choose your academic level: highschool, college/university or professional, Your order will be assigned to a writer who possesses a respective degree.

Highly Experienced Paper Writers

Highly Experienced Paper Writers

Our team of professional academic writers has years of vast experience in academic writing, research, and formatting. So you can always be sure that your project is in safe hands.

Free Revisions Essay Writing

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you believe we missed something, feel free to send your order for a free revision. After receipt of the final document, You have 10 days to submit the order for review. A revision can be submitted by logging into your personal account or by contacting our support team.

Timely Assignment Delivery

Timely Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

We ensure that all papers are always delivered on the expected time. In any case, if we require more time to polish your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you are not in a position to allocate additional time, a 100% order refund is guaranteed.

Plagiarism free custom writing

Plagiarism free & Confidential

As part of our quality assurance process, we use several writing tools and checks to ensure that all documents you receive are 100% unique and original.Each paper undergoes careful review by our editors to deliver plagiarism free essays. We also guarantee maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

Real time chat essay writer

Real time online chat with your writer

Our writers and support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week to assist you. We are committed to providing you with top-notch customer experience. Chat with us anytime.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Get your paper done in these simple steps

give essay topic

Give your requirements

Fill in the order form and tell us about your assignment, instructions and deadline

pay for essay

Proceed with the payment

Choose your preferred payment method and the writer will start writing your custom paper.

download custom essay

Download the final file

Once your high quality custom paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Paper Writing Services

We are here to ensure you dont get stuck with your coursework and assignments. Focus on your hobbies and enjoy some quality leisure time as we write your paper. You can trust our kinds of writing services.

essay writing service essay helper


Essay Writing Service

Stuck with an essay assignment? Making an admission application? We specialize in writing high quality and engaging personal statements as well as application essays. Our professional academic essay writers are experts in writing 100% original essays according to order specifications. From compositions, creative writing to literary analysis we've got you covered.

professional assignment Help assignment writer


Professional assignment Help

Your routine homework and academic assignments are completed on time and at affordable prices. Submit your assignments and the respective subject matter expert will get it done within no time and painlessly. Better grades will be yours without any stress at all!

research paper writing service english essay writer


Research and Term Papers

Every member of our dynamic essay writing team is an expert in academic research. They are all well versed with APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard citation formats. Your research paper gets to you fully formatted and ready to be submitted. The research involved in writing your paper is always 100% original. This is part of our commitment to provide you with papers free of plagiarism.

custom writing academic writer

Custom Writing

Custom Writing Services

Our highly experienced business, nursing, and psychology writers are true professionals with vast prowess at delivering outstanding work in a wide range of fields. You dont have to worry about Short deadlines anymore. Just give us the instructions and you'll receive your custom paper ASAP! We have fully qualified, full-pro writers on stand by to assist you.