Assessment and Screening Tools for Depression and Anxiety

Assessment and Screening Tools for Depression and Anxiety

In addition to cognitive behavioral treatment, I would take SSRIs. SSRIs like fluoxetine and citalopram are among the most effective antidepressants. There is some evidence to support the use of these medications, especially in those with more severe depression. I would choose cognitive behavioral therapy for Jerome as another evidence-based approach. This is so that I can use cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to change his thought patterns and thus his behaviors and emotions (Moloud et al., 2022). I can utilize cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to assist Jerome in identifying his undesirable behavioral responses and patterns of thought to demanding and stressful conditions.  Because CBT is based on science, it prevents relapses in the future better than medicine. We can work together to change a Jerome’s surroundings, behavior, and cognition by considering my field of expertise and the client’s values.

Assessment and Screening Tools

I would use Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to assess depression and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale to evaluate anxiety in Jerome. PHQ-9 is a nine-item survey that aids in the diagnosis and severity evaluation of depression (APA, 2021). It is based exactly on DSM-IV’s major depressive disorder criteria for diagnosis. It takes roughly 3 minutes to finish. Scores are categorized into minimal (from one to four), mild (from five to nine), moderate (from ten to fourteen), fairly severe (from fifteen to nineteen), and severe depressive disorder (from twenty to twenty-seven). It is available on the internet for free download. HAD Scale is approved to be used settings of primary care. It is intended to evaluate depressive symptoms as well as anxiety. It takes roughly five minutes to finish. The depressive or anxiety scale consists of seven items, and results are categorized as normal, mild, moderate, and severe.

Physiological Causes of Jerome’s Anxiety and Depression

Jerome’s depression and anxiety are primarily brought on by stress. Jerome claims that he gets stressed out, especially when it comes to his profession. Many people who display acute anxiety and depression experience psychological stress on a daily basis, according to study. The daily social and physical functions are significantly impacted by this more prevalent type of psychological stress (Elmer & Stadtfeld, 2020). Jerome’s life has been adversely affected by stress. Jerome experiences physical symptoms of anxiety and depression due to his work stress, which also cause him to be less productive at work and cause disturbances in his social and personal lives. Jerome suffers from high levels of stress, which affect his eating habits, physical activity levels, sleep patterns, and alcohol usage. Stress is the root of these habits, and stress causes melancholy and anxiety.

DSM-5 Classification

According to the DSM-5, Jerome has major depressive disorder (MDD). Based on DSM-5, a person cannot be diagnosed with MDD unless they demonstrate at least five of the symptoms of low mood, loss of enjoyment or interest, sleeplessness, exhaustion, a sense of inadequacy, lack of focus, and suicidal thoughts (APA, 2021). I believed that Jerome exhibited symptoms of major depressive disorder, such as depressed emotions, an easy disengagement, exhaustion, loss of energy, binge drinking alcohol, and irregular sleep patterns. Jerome also exhibits other symptoms of depression, such as heightened sensitivity and a lack of interest in social activities. These are the signs and symptoms of serious depression.

Plan of Care for Jerome

Encouraging Jerome to communicate his thoughts and think of creative solutions to deal with his frustration and anger is an excellent care strategy. Jerome can discover alternate techniques for coping with intense feelings and regain control over his life. Building relationships is primarily about words. It requires choosing a certain communication route to facilitate the first point of interaction between people. As prescribed, I shall also give out antidepressants. The advantages of SSRIs include convenience of dosage as well as minimal toxicity in overdose. For treatment, SSRIs are far more favored than other antidepressant classes, and they are frequently the first-choice treatments for later-onset depression. Greater compliance is encouraged by the fact that SSRIs’ adverse-effect pattern is less pronounced compared to that of other types of drugs (Moloud et al., 2022). Additionally, I will make arrangements for crisis counseling with Jerome’s family and call them. To reduce their feelings of hopelessness, unworthiness, and loneliness, clients need a series of resources. An important part of a therapy plan may be involving the family. Families can act as reliable sources of information, monitor medication compliance, and motivate patients to stop engaging in depressive-stimulating behaviors.







American Psychiatric Association. (2021). Treating Sleep Problems May Help Prevent Depression. American Psychiatric Association.

Elmer, T., & Stadtfeld, C. (2020). Depressive symptoms are associated with social isolation in face-to-face interaction networks. Scientific Reports10(1444).

Moloud, R., Saeed, Y., Mahmonir, H., & Asl Rasool, G. (2022). Cognitive-behavioral group therapy in major depressive disorder with focus on self-esteem and optimism: an interventional study. BMC Psychiatry, 22(299).



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